有机化学工业从这一抹紫色开始

发布时间:2021-11-15 00:50 阅读次数:
本文摘要:When he started fiddling with chemicals in his home in March 1856, William Henry Perkin had no idea what was about to happen. He was an 18-year-old student at London's Royal College of Chemistry, eager to impress his teacher. His homework

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When he started fiddling with chemicals in his home in March 1856, William Henry Perkin had no idea what was about to happen. He was an 18-year-old student at London's Royal College of Chemistry, eager to impress his teacher. His homework assignment was to run experiments at home during the Easter break. Perkin was tasked with finding a cheap way to produce quinine, a substance used to treat malaria, which had to be extracted from the bark of exotic trees and was thus expensive. The young man thought he could make it himself in his simple home lab in London. So he started mixing ingredients.1856年3月,当威廉·亨利·珀金(William Henry Perkin)开始在家中摆弄化学药品时,他并没有预感应将会发生什么。作为伦敦皇家化学学院的一名18岁学生,他迫切希望有所成就,让老师对他另眼相看。复生节假期,他的家庭作业是在家里做实验。珀金的任务是找到一种经济的方法来制造奎宁,奎宁是一种用于治疗疟疾的物质,必须从外来树木的树皮中提取,因为来之不易,所以价钱极其昂贵。

年轻时的帕金认为,他可以在自家简朴的实验室里自己实验做做看。实验中,他将种种原料混淆到了一起。

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Astonishing examples of serendipity in science科学界最引人注目的意外收获之一To make artificial quinine, Perkin turned to coal tar, the discarded sludge from Victorian gas lighting. It was believed that the two substances shared a similar chemical structure. But once he finished his concoction, instead of the normally colorless quinine, all that was left in his test tube was a thick black goo.为了制造人造奎宁,珀金选择使用煤焦油,一种维多利亚时代用的燃气照明物废弃污泥。其时,人们普遍认为这两种物质具有相似的化学结构。但当他用煤焦油完成实验后,获得的并不是常见的无色奎宁,试管中留下的只有一层厚厚的玄色粘稠物。When he tried to wash it off, it left behind a vivid purple color. Remarkably, he found that the color transferred to a cloth with untarnished brilliance. William Henry Perkin had failed to synthesize quinine, but had accidentally invented the first synthetic dye, in one of the most astonishing examples of serendipity in science.在珀金清洗这层玄色粘稠物的历程中,这种物质在试管中留下了鲜艳的紫色。

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意外的是,他发现这种颜色能够转移到一种没有染色的织物上。虽然珀金没有制作出人工奎宁,但他却意外发现了首小我私家工合成染料——苯胺紫,这是科学界最引人注目的意外收获之一。Right color, right time对的时间,发现对的颜Purple just happened to be the most coveted color of the time. "Various shades of purple, pink, lilac, mauve, and rose were at the height of fashion in the spring of 1856," Regina Lee Blaszczyk, professor of business history at the University of Leeds and author of "The Color Revolution," said in an email. Perkin realized that he was onto something. Until then, there were only natural dyes derived from plants and animals.恰巧,紫色在1856年大受接待。

利兹大学(University of Lee。


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